Promoting Latrine Use in Rural India Thematic Window

3ie is pleased to announce nine provisional awards for formative evaluations of interventions to promote latrine use in rural India. Six chosen research teams from the nine teams selected for formative studies will be awarded additional funding of US$300,000 to conduct impact evaluations of the interventions. 3ie is collaborating with the Research Institute for Compassionate Economics on this grant window.

Grants under this window will support the design and implementation of rapid impact evaluations of interventions aimed at increasing latrine use in rural India. It will support studies that apply insights from behavioural science to address supply- or demand-side factors influencing latrine use. 3ie’s grant window aims to generate evidence on the design and implementation of context-specific, low-cost interventions that can be implemented and scaled-up with the resources available through the Government of India’s current national sanitation programme, Swachh Bharat Mission (SBM; the Clean India Mission), and/or any voluntary household contributions. 

For more information on this call, please read the  Request for qualification (RFQ) (273.5 KB) . The deadline for submitting qualifications was 18:00 IST, 27 September 2016.

All key documents required for this application are available on the How to apply page.

At a glance

  • The interventions that will be evaluated must target latrine use in rural Indian settings.
  • 3ie encourages applicants to use behavioural science approaches to design interventions for increasing latrine use.
  • This grant window aims to generate evidence on context-specific, low-cost, interventions that can be implemented and scaled up using the existing resources from Government of India’s SBM programme. Hence interventions costs should not exceed an average of US$20 per household, excluding funding from other sources.
  • Only legally registered organisations, and consortia of registered organisations, not individuals, may apply for grants under this window.
  • The grant-holding organisation and principal investigators (PI) may be located in any country. However, at least one PI in the study team must be an Indian national, resident in India.

 3ie also helped several organisations find suitable research partners by creating a matchmaking page to facilitate such partnerships.

For more information, visit the matchmaking page.

For more information on this thematic window, send us an email at 
The answers to the questions 3ie received by 18:00 IST, 30 August 2016 are available in this Q&A document (266.9 KB)


About 3ie’s Promoting Latrine Use in Rural India Thematic Window

Open defecation (OD) is a widespread and persistent health challenge in India. According to the World Health Organisation and UNICEF (2015), almost 60 per cent of the global population that practises OD is located in India. In rural India, 90 per cent of households do not own a latrine, and 61 per cent of individuals defecate in the open. The health consequences of OD are long lasting and life threatening.  As per the World Bank (2006), OD’s economic consequences are estimated to be around US$53.8 billion or about 6.4 per cent of GDP.

Even though latrine use has widely been cited in the mass media as a key factor for reducing OD, very few quantitative studies have focused on latrine use as a primary or secondary outcome. To address this knowledge gap in research, 3ie’s Promoting Latrine Use in Rural India Thematic Window will investigate multidimensional supply and demand factors influencing latrine use.

The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation has provided funding support for this thematic window.

Photo©UNICEF & Gov. of India

Scroll to Top