Sanitation and Hygiene Thematic Window

3ie and the Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council (WSSCC) are partners on the Evidence Programme on Sanitation and Hygiene.

This programme aims to build the evidence base on effective sanitation and hygiene programmes in low- and middle-income countries. It has funded impact evaluations, systematic reviews, an evidence gap map, a study on effective advocacy approaches and a mid-term review of WSSCC.

Formed in 2014, 3ie and WSSCC’s partnership brings together two organisations that are committed to closing evidence gaps and improving outcomes for people living in poverty. WSSCC is the only United Nations body devoted solely to the sanitation needs of the most vulnerable and marginalised people. In collaboration with its members in 150 countries, WSSCC advocates for the billions of people worldwide who lack access to sanitation, shares solutions that empower communities and operates the Global Sanitation Fund.

Systematic reviews

Promoting handwashing and sanitation behaviour change in low-and middle-income countries

This systematic review examines which promotional approaches are effective in changing handwashing and sanitation behaviour and which implementation factors affect the success or failure of such interventions.


Download the review   |   Download the summary report   |   Download brief   |   Watch webinar recording

Incorporating the life cycle approach into WASH policies and programmes

This systematic review is the first of its kind to use a life-cycle lens to systematically analyse the WASH portfolio of policies, programmes and projects in South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa. The review synthesises evidence on the extent of efforts to provide services for disadvantaged and vulnerable populations.


Download full review   |   Download brief   |   Watch video

Working paper

This working paper reviews existing evidence to identify factors associated with successful advocacy programmes and the challenges related to evaluating advocacy.




Download working paper   |   Download brief

Impact evaluations

The impact of enhanced, demand-side sanitation and hygiene promotion on sustained behaviour change and mental well-being in Ethiopia

This evaluation in Ethiopia assesses the impact of community-led total sanitation and hygiene on behaviour change, sanitation security and mental well-being.

Read more

The impact of a sanitation intervention on women’s psychosocial health: a quasi-experimental, mixed methods study in Bihar, India

This impact evaluation assesses whether the Global Sanitation Fund’s sanitation programme has an impact on the reduction of psychosocial stress, and the improvement of safety and quality of life among women and girls.

Read more

Evidence gap map

The gap map consolidates and graphically presents existing evidence in the WASH sector.

Read blog

@DFAT Photo Library

Scroll to Top