Water, sanitation and hygiene


3ie has two major evidence programmes that support the generation and use of high-quality evidence for informing decision-making in the water, sanitation and hygiene sector (WASH).

To know more about how we are contributing to the WASH sector, download our brochure here.

For more information, please write to info@3ieimpact.org. To receive alerts about call for proposals, please sign up here.

Related content

Impacts of low-cost interventions to improve latrine use and safe disposal of child faeces in rural Odisha, India

Impact evaluation 3ie 2020
Authors of this impact evaluation report examines the impact of a multi-level intervention on latrine use and safe child faeces disposal behaviour in rural Odisha.

Improving households’ attitudes and behaviours to increase toilet use in Bihar, India

Impact evaluation 3ie 2020
Authors of this impact evaluation report evaluate the impact of a behaviourally-informed intervention in increasing intent, and habit, of toilet use among toilet-owning households in rural Bihar.

Community toilet use in Indian slums: willingness-to-pay and the role of informational and supply side constraints

Impact evaluation 3ie 2020
Authors of this impact evaluation report examine if community toilet related supply-side improvements and information campaigns can have an impact on the users’ willingness to pay and the overall quality and usage of these community toilets in the cities of Lucknow and Kanpur in India.

The 5 Star Toilet Campaign: improving toilet use in rural Gujarat

Impact evaluation 3ie 2020
This impact evaluation evaluated the effect of the 5 Star Toilet Campaign on toilet use in rural Gujarat. The Campaign was launched to address the complex determinants of low toilet use and improve use among all members of households having access to government or contractor-built toilets in selected villages of Bhavnagar, Gujarat.

Mapping the evidence on WASH promotion in communities, schools and health facilities

Evidence gap map Brief 3ie 2018
3ie’s WASH evidence gap map provides an assessment of the evidence base for behaviour change, health and socio-economic outcomes resulting from WASH promotional approaches in households, schools, health facilities and communities.

Using a life-cycle approach to target WASH policies and programmes in South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa

Systematic review Brief 3ie 2018
The brief summarises a systematic review on the effectiveness of two approaches to targeting populations in programmes and policies to reduce barriers to accessing WASH services and strategies during the MDGs.

What works in expanding the use of chlorine dispensers to purify water? Impact evidence from Kenya

Impact evaluation Brief 3ie 2015
According to the World Health Organization, diarrhoeal disease is the second leading cause of death among children under the age of five.

Can disgust and shame lead to cleaner water and more handwashing? Impact evidence from Bangladesh

Impact evaluation Brief 3ie 2015
Improvements in water quality, sanitation and hygiene are associated with a reduction in risk of diarrhoea. However, treating water and regular handwashing with soap are not common practices in several low- and middle-income countries, including Bangladesh.

Does building more toilets stop the spread of disease? Impact evidence from India

Impact evaluation Brief 3ie 2015
Over one-third of the 2.5 billion people worldwide who do not have access to improved sanitation live in India. Nearly 69 per cent of the population practise open defecation. Typically, the government of India’s national sanitation schemes have focused on building more latrines for reducing open defecation, health-related illness and child malnutrition.

Water to save lives

Impact evaluation Brief 3ie 2009
Contaminated water is bad for health, resulting in thousands of premature deaths around the world each year. There is strong evidence that household water treatment has the biggest impact and is the most costeffective method in reducing risks of diarrhoea.

Running water, working toilets and safe hygiene practices

Impact evaluation Brief 3ie 2009
The world is falling behind its targets to improve people’s access to sanitation, with major health costs. There is strong evidence that both sanitation and hygiene interventions are highly effective in reducing risks of diarrhoea, however public health promotion appears more cost-effective.

Willingness to pay for cleaner water in less developed countries: systematic review of experimental evidence

Systematic review 3ie 2012

Clair Null et al. examines studies that have used randomized approaches or even attempted to measure households' willingness to pay for cleaner water.

Safe drinking water. Who is willing to pay the price?

Systematic review Brief 3ie 2012
Treating water can reduce the prevalence of diarrhoea by up to 70 percent. Although there are several inexpensive water treatment technologies available, statistics show that every 15 seconds a child dies due to waterborne diseases. Over 700 million people still lack access to safe drinking water.

Water, sanitation and hygiene interventions to combat childhood diarrhoea in developing countries

Systematic review 3ie 2009

This systematic review by Hugh Waddington, et al.

There are no evidence gap maps
There are no replication studies
There is no related content.