The Indian government has led a massive sanitation programme, Swachh Bharat Abhiyan - Gramin, to improve latrine access and use. However, there is growing awareness that access and use are not the same. 3ie, with support from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, supported five studies to promote latrine use in rural India. Four of these studies implemented and evaluated behaviour change interventions targeting barriers to use. The fifth considered the challenges related to measuring latrine use by comparing responses to household and individual-level latrine use questions. For more information on this programme, please visit here.
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