Working papers

These papers cover a range of content. They may focus on current issues, debates and enduring challenges. Policy-relevant papers in this series synthesise or draw on relevant 3ie-funded studies and reviews, as well as other rigorous evidence, to offer new analyses, findings, insights and recommendations. Methods papers and technical guides help advance understanding, design, and use of rigorous and appropriate evaluations and reviews. 3ie also uses this series to publish lessons learned from 3ie grant-making.

Latest working papers

Working papers

Understanding NRLM’s Impact on Livelihoods and Social Outcomes: A Unifying Framework

Working paper 3ie 2023 This paper presents a unifying framework for understanding the impact of India’s National Rural Livelihoods Mission (NRLM) on livelihoods and social outcomes. It derives key insight from the literature on economic growth. This paper is part of our ongoing Rural India Livelihoods Program supported by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

The effects of democracy and freedom interventions in democratic backsliding contexts: A rapid evidence assessment

Working paper 3ie 2023 The authors of this report present findings of a rapid evidence assessment on the effects of democracy and freedom interventions in democratic backsliding contexts. This report was commissioned by the United Kingdom’s Foreign, Commonwealth and Development Office (FCDO).

Findings from a qualitative analysis of ADN Dignidad Program in Colombia

Working paper 3ie 2023 This paper examines the qualitative analysis of the effectiveness of Multipurpose Cash Transfers in improving the lives of Venezuelan migrants in Colombia.

Learning from collective-led sanitation enterprises in urban Odisha, Tamil Nadu and Telangana

Working paper 3ie 2022 This paper summarizes the findings of a learning study on the processes and lessons from recent efforts of the Odisha, Tamil Nadu and Telangana governments to improve sanitation services and provide employment opportunities to urban collectives through fecal sludge management, and operation and maintenance of community and public toilets.

Use of performance-based contracts for road maintenance projects: a rapid evidence assessment

Working paper 3ie 2022 Authors of this rapid evidence assessment synthesize available rigorous impact evaluations of performance-based contracting in road construction in low income and low-and-middle-income countries. 

Evaluation of IDEA project in Bangladesh: a baseline report

Working paper 3ie 2022 Authors of this report present the findings from a baseline survey of a WorldFish aquaculture project, Increasing income, diversifying diets and empowering women (IDEA) in Bangladesh. This baseline report is part of an ongoing impact evaluation of the project that focuses on the Rajshahi and Rangpur divisions.

A framework for examining women’s economic empowerment in collective enterprises

Working paper 3ie 2022 Women-owned collective enterprises are seen as vehicles for promoting economic empowerment. To assess how collective enterprise-based interventions can lead to empowerment, it's important to understand the pathways to change.

Understanding caste-based differences in self help groups: Evidence from India’s NRLM program

Working paper 3ie 2022 Authors of this paper analyze the caste-based differences in office bearer positions, participation and benefits received by women who are members of self-help groups under India’s National Rural Livelihoods Mission.

Incorporating process evaluation into impact evaluation: what, why and how

Working paper 3ie 2022 The authors of this paper lay down guidelines that can provide impact evaluators with tools and ideas on how to explore and add relevant elements of process evaluations to experimental and quasi-experimental impact evaluation designs.

Promoting women’s groups for facilitating market linkages in Bihar, India

Working paper 3ie 2021 Authors of this paper analyze the effects of market linkages on women's agricultural producer groups, which are part of the Women's Advancement in Rural Development and Agriculture (WARDA) project in Purnea District, Bihar.